It’s time to start planning your professional development in 2017 with GovLoop’s updated list of the best government conferences.
This is the third year we’ve made this list for you. You’ll find brand new events worth checking out as well as established events that might be new to you. Many are essential conferences that those working in government cannot do without.
Our roundups of the best government conferences have been so consistently valuable and popular that we even created another list just for the best state and local government conferences.
This updated list of the best government conferences should help you plan ahead and advocate for those precious professional development dollars. We’ve dug deep to find the dates for as many events as we can to help you have a great 2017. But, that level of thoroughness means that not every event below will have lots of details available.
As a bonus for the social media savvy, the listings include event hashtags, when available, for those who can’t attend but want to participate in the virtual conversations.
Association of Government Accountants (AGA) Financial Systems Summit (FSS)
January 13, 2017 | Washington, D.C. or virtual | #FSS2017
FSS unites federal financial managers and private sector executives to discuss the near-term and future prospects of federal financial management systems in a budget-constrained environment. The summit will provide new insights into the burgeoning federal financial systems modernization strategy over the coming decade and beyond.
AcademyHealth National Health Policy Conference
January 30 – 31, 2017 | Marriott Marquis, Washington, D.C. | #NHPC17
The AcademyHealth National Health Policy Conference (NHPC) provides an outlook on the nation’s health policy agenda for the year ahead. For two days, the nation’s leading health care decision-makers and policy leaders use the existing evidence base to provide clarity on the most critical health care issues and immediate policy priorities in United States health care.
Esri Federal GIS Conference
February 13 – 14, 2017 | Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, D.C. | #FedGIS
The Esri Federal GIS Conference provides government professionals insight to help navigate their missions and ultimately save time and money. Attendees learn more about products, solutions, and services related to ArcGIS software that can improve collaboration, deliver better services, and meet current mandates. The conference is free for federal government and NGO personnel. Also check out the Esri User Conference (EsriUC).
February 13 – 17, 2017 | Moscone Center, San Francisco, CA | #RSAC
RSA Conference helps drive the information security agenda worldwide. Attendees learn about IT security’s most important issues through first-hand interactions with peers, luminaries and emerging and established companies. RSA Conference plays an integral role in keeping national security professionals connected and educated.
Federal Networks Conference
February 14 – 15, 2017 | Washington, D.C.
This conference brings together senior decision-makers from key agencies across the government to share their latest plans for how they will design, purchase, and operate their networks as well as the IT services that these networks enable and deliver.
Association of Government Accountants (AGA) National Leadership Training (NLT)
February 15 – 16, 2017 | Washington, D.C. or virtual
The NLT provides developing and training to help government financial professionals excel as leaders in today’s competitive market. It’s an opportunity to share best practices, find solutions to shared challenges, network with your peers, and learn from the top financial management leaders and industry experts.
Visual Communication Strategies for Government
February 22 – 24, 2017 | Washington, D.C. | #ALI_Gov
At this Advanced Learning Institute event, attendees will learn how and why government agencies are using video, social, and digital channels to increase audience involvement and engagement to achieve mission objectives.
Category Management Conference
March 1, 2017 | Renaissance Washington, Washington , D.C.
Attendees will learn how category management is producing good results today and engage and collaborate to make category management and the acquisition gateway work even better going forward. ACT-IAC and the General Services Administration (GSA) hosts the Category Management Conference for government and industry acquisition professionals and leaders at all levels.
Public Sector CIO Academy: California
March 1 – 2, 2017 | Sheraton Grand Sacramento, Sacramento, CA | #govtechlive
If you can score a spot at this invitation-only event, you’ll meet C-level professionals addressing the most important policy, management, and leadership issues surrounding the future of digital government and the role of the public sector CIO in the State of California. Developed by and for government by Government Technology, which hosts other events around the country.
Climate Leadership Conference
March 1 – 3, 2017 | Chicago, IL | #TheCLC
The annual Climate Leadership Conference convenes a global audience of climate, energy, and sustainability professionals to address climate change through policy, innovation, and business solutions. It is an opportunity to collaborate with peers, learn from experts, and together, navigate the latest climate and energy solutions.
South by Southwest (SXSW)
March 10 – 19, 2017 | Austin, TX | #SXSW
SXSW is a series of conferences and festivals that offer a convergence of original music, independent films, and emerging technologies. As pointed out by GovLoop member Patrick Fiorenza, “SXSW has a bunch of interesting sessions, many of which are public sector focused even though [it’s] not typically a public sector oriented conference.”
Federal Information Systems Security Educators Association (FISSEA) Conference
March 14 – 15, 2017 | Gaithersburg, MD
FISSEA is a volunteer organization run by and for federal information systems security professionals with an interest in awareness, training, education, and certification. The FISSEA Conference assists federal agencies in meeting their computer security training responsibilities.
American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) Annual Conference
March 17 – 21, 2017 | Atlanta, GA | #ASPA2017
The ASPA Conference showcases state-of-the-art practices used in modern public and nonprofit administration while exploring new approaches and opportunities for continued innovation. It brings together public administrators from across the discipline.
Nonprofit Technology Conference (NTC)
March 23 – 27, 2017 | Marriott Wardman Park Hotel, Washington, D.C. | #17NTC
The NTC is the nonprofit sector’s signature technology event. It assembles over 2,000 of the best and brightest nonprofit and public sector professionals from around the world. Together, they collaborate, innovate, and discover new ways to spark change with technology. The 2017 D.C. event promises to attract a special group of people working in government and at foundations and international organizations. The NTC is produced by NTEN, the Nonprofit Technology Network.
International Wireless Communications Expo (IWCE)
March 27 – 31, 2017 | Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, NV | #IWCE2017
IWCE is for communications technology professionals in the working world. It features over 400 exhibitors showcasing the latest products and trends in the industry. Attendees are a diverse group of industry professionals including government and military, public safety (law enforcement, fire service, emergency medical and 911), utility, transportation, and business enterprise.
National Community Reinvestment Coalition (NCRC) Annual Conference
March 28 – 30, 2017 | Capital Hilton Hotel, Washington, D.C. | #JustEconomy
The NCRC conference gathers community nonprofits, policymakers, government officials, small businesses, media, and academia to focus on how we can create a more just economic framework to improve the lives of American families, our workers, our older adults, our children, and our environment, while strengthening global access to credit and capital.
Government Social Media Conference & Expo (GSMCON)
April 11 – 13, 2017 | Dallas Sheraton, Dallas, TX | #GSMCON
GSMCON attendees can collaborate with a network of city, county, state, and local social media managers, learn strategy and technique from experts and peers, and maximize their program to bring value to citizens. You can also catch Government Social Media’s regional trainings.
Transforming Local Government Conference
April 18 – 21, 2017 | Tulsa, OK | #TLG2017
Called “the premiere thinking conference for local government,” this event is hosted by the Alliance for Innovation. The conference attracts participation from local governments that are seeking new and innovative ways to connect people, information, and ideas that support their efforts to be the best communities in which to live, work, and prosper.
National Council on Public History (NCPH) Annual Meeting
April 19 – 22, 2017 | Westin Indianapolis, IN | #ncph2017
NCPH’s annual meeting is for professionals, students, faculty members, and anyone else interested in public history, and attracts academic historians, federal employees, archivists, museum workers, and teachers. The conference provides professional development, networking, and community connections.
National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO) Midyear Conference
April 23 – 25, 2017 | Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Arlington, VA | #NASCIO17
NASCIO conferences are the go-to events for state IT leaders. It hosts both a mid-year event in the Spring and a larger annual conference in the Fall.
National Public Employer Labor Relations Association (NPELRA) Annual Training Conference
April 23 – 27, 2017 | Hilton Long Beach, Long Beach, CA | #NPELRAduck
NPELRA provides progressive labor relations advice that balances the needs of management, and the public interest. The Annual Training Conference is open to supervisors, managers, or representatives of management in the public sector, not representing any union.
Cloudera Government Forum
April 25, 2017 | Location TBA | #govdataforum
The Cloudera Government Forum brings together public and private sector practitioners to discuss the state of data analytics and share case studies of how agencies are leveraging their data to enable improved decision making.
Othering & Belonging Conference
April 30 – May 2, 2017 | Oakland, CA
The Othering & Belonging Conference aims to bring together people from a wide spectrum of disciplines and backgrounds to examine the issues of respecting people at a basic level that includes the right to both contribute and make demands upon society and political institutions. The conference is organized by the Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society at UC Berkeley.
Governing Leadership Forum: Michigan
May 2, 2017 | Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center, East Lansing, MI | #govlive
State and local government convene at this one-day event organized by Governing magazine. Participant will be inspired to take action and advance better government. Governing magazine hosts similar government leadership events in other regions.
AGA and AFFIRM’s CFO/CIO Summit
May 4, 2017 | Washington, D.C.
The Association of Government Accountants (AGA) and the Association for Federal Information Resources Management (AFFIRM) host this educational event on the intersection of policies and management issues that impact CFOs and CIOs and how they are working together to improve efficiency and transparency, reduce risk, and strengthen their workforce. Free for individuals who work for government.
YTH Live: The Youth + Health + Tech Conference
May 7 – 9, 2017 | Bespoke, San Francisco, CA | #ythlive
YTH Live is the premier conference for trailblazing technology that advances youth health and wellness. Each year the brightest minds in youth advocacy, public health, government research, and technology gather at YTH Live to showcase what works, share ideas and learnings, and launch new collaborations. Connect with vibrant thinkers, makers, and doers in the YTH Live community, and take what you learn to improve the lives of the youth you serve and support.
Annual Rural Health Conference
May 9 – 12, 2017 | San Diego, CA
The National Rural Health Association (NRHA) Annual Rural Health Conference is for anyone with an interest in rural health care, including rural health practitioners, hospital administrators, clinic directors and lay health workers, social workers, state and federal health employees, academics, community members and more. It is the nation’s largest rural health conference. NRHA hosts other events throughout the year, including the Health Equity Conference.
Federal Asian Pacific American Council (FAPAC) National Leadership Training Program
May 15, 2017 | Rockville Hilton, Rockville, MD
A training destination for provide training in leadership, diversity, inclusion/EEO, and career advancement and management. Open to all federal employees. Federal Asian Pacific American Council (FAPAC) is a nonprofit representing the civilian and military Asian Pacific American (APA) employees in the federal and D.C. governments.
ACT-IAC Management of Change (MOC)
May 21 – 23, 2017 | TBA | #MOC2017
Leaders need to look beyond the immediate problem and quick fixes to consider the foundations of how government delivers its mission, what the public needs and expects, and how we can best prepare ourselves for the challenges of the future. Our cyber infrastructure, the tools we use, the ways we provide services to customers, and how we develop our leaders all offer significant opportunities for transformational change. MOC engages people in discussions on how to navigate the current IT crossroads.
Government Finance Officers Association (GFOA) of the United States and Canada Annual Conference
May 21 – 24, 2017 | Colorado Convention Center, Denver, CO | #GFOA2017
Thousands of public finance professionals gather each year for this three-day conference to share ideas, develop technical and managerial skills, view new products, and network with peers.
Summit on Government Performance & Innovation
May 24 – 25, 2017 | Phoenix, AZ | #govlive
The Summit on Government Performance & Innovation is a policy and leadership event focused on strategies and technologies that will enable government to deliver better service, engage citizens, and ultimately improve performance. The event is organized by Governing magazine, which also hosts other summits on infrastructure and public/private partnerships, financial leadership, and health and human services.
June 4 – 7, 2017 | San Antonio, TX | #GEOINT2017
The annual gathering for those working in geospatial intelligence. Provides training, education, and professional development to thousands of attendees, including government personnel, intelligence officers, members of the military, and industry specialists. The host, the United States Geospatial Intelligence Foundation (USGIF) also hosts the GEOINT Community Week each fall.
SAIGE National Training Program
June 5 – 8, 2017 | We Ko Pa Resort and Conference Center, Scottsdale, AZ
The Society of American Indian Government Employees (SAIGE) hosts this annual training featuring workshops and professional development opportunities for all government employees. The program has specific training in American Indian and Alaska Native topics, including government to government relations and Federal Indian Law. It includes a program for veterans and a youth leadership track. Participants are addressed by federal and tribal officials on current issues, and local tribal members provide cultural presentations.
ACT-IAC Acquisition Excellence
June 13, 2017 | Renaissance Washington, Washington, D.C. | #AE2017
Acquisition Excellence is an education and training event that brings together the government and industry acquisition communities in order to collaborate on the latest acquisition challenges and generate innovative solutions for potential implementation.
Association of Proposal Management Professionals (APMP) Bid & Proposal Con
June 13 – 15, 2017 | New Orleans, LA | #APMP2017
The world’s largest event for proposal, bid, tender, capture, business development, and graphics professionals, including government contracting. Attendees learn about tested information, proven strategies, and best practices to help capture, write, produce, manage proposals and increase win rates.
National Association of Government Communicators (NAGC) Communications School
June 13 – 15, 2017 | Drury Plaza Hotel at the Arch, St. Louis, MO | #NAGC2017
Hosted by the National Association of Government Communicators (NAGC), the Communications School provides networking opportunities and practical educational sessions to help government communicators increase their skills. It attracts a mix of federal, state, and local government communication leaders.
ServiceUnites: Conference on Volunteering and Service
June 19 – 21, 2017 | Seattle, WA | #ServiceUnites
People who care about the future of volunteer service convene at Points of Light’s annual conference to work together to increase the number of volunteers in the world and the impact of the work they do. It is the largest service-related convening of nonprofit, government, business, and civic leaders in the world.
EEOC’s EXCEL Conference
June 27 – 29, 2017 | Chicago, IL
EXCEL is a national training for federal and private sector EEO managers, supervisors, practitioners, HR professionals, attorneys, and ADR specialists. Attendees can learn the latest EEO developments from the EEOC experts who enforce EEO laws and can hear fromfrom other federal high ranking officials about their agencies’ priorities and regulatory agenda.
Association of Government Accountants (AGA) Professional Development Training (PDT)
July 9 – 12, 2017 | John B. Hynes Veterans Memorial Convention Center, Boston, MA
AGA’s Professional Development Training brings together top financial officials in federal, state and local government, as well as from academia and the private sector, for valuable training and networking.
Esri User Conference
July 10 – 14, 2017 | San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, CA | #EsriUC
The Esri User Conference has long been a favorite at GovLoop. It’s a conference designed for users of the Esri platform and for those who want to learn more about geographic information systems (GIS), data visualization, and other geospatial applications. Be sure to check out the Esri Federal GIS Conference (FedGIS).
International Personnel Assessment Council (IPAC) Conference
July 16 – 19, 2017 | Birmingham, AL
A collaborative environment to learn about trends and best practices in recruitment and merit-based assessment practices, and to work through I/O related challenges.
Federally Employed Women (FEW) National Training Program (NTP)
July 17 – 20, 2017 | New Orleans, LA
This event trains federal workers for personal and professional career growth. FEW maps every training session to the guidelines of the Office of Personnel Management’s Senior Executive Service, Executive Core Qualifications (Leading Change, Leading People, Results Driven, Business Acumen, Building Coalitions) and the underlying fundamental core competencies.
July 17 – 22, 2017 | Hilton Orlando Hotel, Orlando, FL
The AHEAD Conference may be sponsored by the Association on Higher Education and Disability, but the topics are not just related to higher education. There is a heavy emphasis on diversity, disability, policy, technology, current trends and issues as they relate to the law and disability. Those presenting are leaders in their fields, and have included professionals from the Department of Justice, the Office of Civil Rights, and others.
Next Generation of Government Training Summit
July 27 – 28, 2017 | Renaissance Downtown, Washington, D.C. | #NextGenGov
The NextGen Summit is a place to cultivate and enable the absolute best next generation of government. Whether you’re a millennial just entering the government workforce or a manager tasked with retaining and developing talent, or a seasoned public servant looking for new resources or challenges, the NextGen Summit is where you want to be. The two-day summit inspires federal, state, and local govies to be positive change ambassadors.
World Congress 2017
July 23 – 26, 2017 | Chicago, IL | #NCMAwc
Over 2,000 professionals in contract management, procurement, and acquisition attend this annual event hosted by National Contract Management Association (NCMA). World Congress offers 100+ breakout sessions relevant to all career levels, engaging main stage speakers, as well as many exciting networking events. Attendees receive 20 CPE/CLP credits.
Federal Dispute Resolution (FDR) Training
August 7 – 10, 2017 | Marriott Marquis, San Francisco, CA | #FDRtraining
The FDR Training helps attendees resolve workplace disputes and avoid situations that lead to complaints, ultimately reducing costly litigation for your agency. Sessions span five educational tracks: alternative dispute resolution, equal employment opportunity, executive perspective, attorney/legal, and HR/LR/ER.
Institute of Public Administration of Canada (IPAC) Annual Conference
August 20 – 23, 2017 | Delta Prince Edward Hotel, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada | #IPAC2016
The IPAC Conference showcases cutting-edge best practices, models, and collaborative efforts that have achieved excellence in public service delivery, governance, and policy development. Attracts attendees from across Canada working at all levels of government and the public sector as well as representatives from Indigenous governments and institutions, non-governmental organizations, the private sector, and academia. IPAC also hosts other events throughout the year, including a New Professionals Workshop.
United States Conference on AIDS (USCA)
September 7 – 10, 2017 | Marriott Marquis WDC, Washington, D.C. | #USCA
The USCA is the largest conference on AIDS in the nation. It is hosted by NMAC, a nonprofit that leads with race to urgently fight for health equity and racial justice to end the HIV epidemic in America.
AFCEA Homeland Security Conference and Federal Identity Forum & Exposition
September 11 – 14, 2017 | Washington, D.C. | #AFCEAHomeland
The Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA) Homeland Security Conference brings together the people in charge of ensuring mission success for open discussion. In 2017, the conference will be co-located with t he AFCEAFederal Identity Forum & Exposition (FIFE), an outreach and collaboration-building event between the federal government and the worldwide identity community. The two events will share an exhibit hall but will operate separately.
National Image, Inc.’s National Training Program
September 11 – 15, 2017 | Isleta Resort and Casino, Albuquerque, NM
Provides government employees, including those involved in the management of Hispanic employment and outreach programs, the education and skills necessary to reach their full leadership potential and to fully manage their employment programs. Includes a career fair for federal agencies to talk to attendees, students, and the general public about government employment opportunities. The event organizer, National Image, Inc., is a nonprofit that serves the Hispanic federal workforce and community.
IPMA-HR International Training Conference & Expo
September 16 – 20, 2017 | San Antonio Marriott Rivercenter, San Antonio, TX
This event by the International Public Management Association for Human Resources (IPMA-HR) gathers professionals working in public sector human resources.
National Association of Government Web (NAGW) Professionals Annual Conference
September 19 – 22, 2017 | Hyatt Regency LaJolla, San Diego (LaJolla), CA | #NAGW2017
Designed for local government web professionals, the NAGW conference focuses on the professional development opportunities for programmers, designers, developers, managers, PIOs, CIOs and government technology professionals at all levels of experience.
National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO) Annual Conference
October 1, 2017 | JW Marriott Austin, Austin, TX | #NASCIO17
NASCIO conferences are the go-to events for state IT leaders. It hosts both a mid-year event each spring and a larger annual conference each fall.
NASPAA Annual Conference
October 11 – 13, 2017 | Hyatt Regency Washington on Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C. | #NASPAA2017
The National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA) annual conference features speakers and breakout sessions on current public affairs education issues.
Behavior, Energy, and Climate Change (BECC) Conference
October 16 – 18, 2017 | Hyatt Regency Sacramento, Sacramento, CA | #BECC2017
The BECC conference focuses on understanding the behavior and decision-making of individuals and organizations and using that knowledge to accelerate our transition to an energy-efficient and low-carbon future. The BECC Conference is convened by the Berkeley Energy and Climate Institute (BECI), Precourt Energy Efficiency Center (PEEC) at Stanford University, and American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE).
International City/County Management Association (ICMA) Annual Conference
October 22 – 25, 2017 | San Antonio/Bexar County, TX or virtual | #ICMA17
The ICMA annual conference for local government managers and staff has been going strong for over 100 years. It offers an abundance of educational, information-sharing, and networking tools to help you manage your community in today’s complex environment. Save the dates for the future ICMA Annual Conferences.
ACT-IAC Executive Leadership Conference
October 29 – 31, 2017 | Williamsburg Lodge, Williamsburg, VA
At the Executive Leadership Conference, attendees will collaborate on in-depth discussions, actionable insights, and tangible proposals for 2017 that will improve their knowledge, skills, and abilities to deliver results differently and better through technoloygy. This event is only open to ACT-IAC members.
American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting & Expo
November 4 – 8, 2017 | Atlanta, GA | #APHA2017
The APHA Annual Meeting & Exposition is where public health professionals convene, learn, network, and engage with peers. Conference participants attend to strengthen the profession of public health, share the latest research and information, promote best practices, and advocate for public health issues and policies grounded in research.
November 6 – 9, 2017 | Moscone Center, San Francisco, CA | #DF17
A massive conference for users of Salesforce’s CRM platform and tools, with over 150,000 in-person attendees. In addition to the general sessions relevant to any Salesforce user, the conference also has several sessions designed specifically for government and public sector organizations.
ARNOVA’s Annual Conference: Nonprofits, Philanthropy, and Government: Policy and Partnerships in an Era of Change
November 16 – 18, 2017 | Amway Grand Plaza Hotel, Grand Rapids, MI | #arnova17
The size, reach, and scope of the nonprofit and philanthropic sectors have never been greater. Studies have demonstrated that the growth of civil society and nonprofits in the U.S. is inextricably linked to the structure and growth of governments in the U.S. Economic conditions and the federal government’s emphasis on social entrepreneurship and innovation also have led to more formal partnerships between public agencies and nonprofits. The Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA) conference will explore these issues, especially in relation to policy and partnerships with government.
Council on Governmental Ethics Laws (COGEL) Conference
December 3 – 6, 2017 | Sheraton Centre Hotel
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
The COGEL Conference is an opportunity to network with top professionals in the fields of governmental ethics, freedom of information, elections, lobbying, and campaign finance.
December 5 – 7, 2017 | Pittsburgh, PA | #Brownfields2017
Cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the International City/County Management Association (ICMA), the Brownfields conference is the largest gathering of stakeholders focused on cleaning up and reusing formerly utilized commercial and industrial properties. The conference is held every two years.
Not Yet Scheduled
The dates for these events have not been announced:
- Adobe Digital Government Assembly | #AdobeGovAssembly: Usually held in early spring.
- Association of Government Accountants (AGA) Internal Control & Fraud Prevention Training | #Fraud17: Usually held in fall.
- Association for Talent Development (ATD) Government Workforce Conference: Usually held in fall.
- Blacks In Government (BIG) National Training Institute (NTI): Usually held in summer.
- Code for America Summit | #CfASummit: Usually held in fall.
- Drupal GovCon | #drupalgovcon: Usually held in July.
- IBM i2 Summit for a Safer Planet: Usually held in fall.
- International LGBT Leaders Conference | #OutPower16: Usually held near the end of the year.
- International Open Data Conference (IODC) | #IODC17: Usually held in fall.
- National Civil Rights Conference | Usually held in fall.
- OPM’s Virtual Human Resources Training Conference: Usually held in fall.
- oSTEM’s National Conference | #oSTEM2017: Usually held in fall.
- Partnership for Public Service Service to America Medals (SAMMIES)|#SAMMIES2017: Usually held in fall.
- Predictive Analytics World for Government | #PAWGOV: Usually held in fall.
- SAFE Annual Global Conference on Human Trafficking: Usually held in fall.
- Summit on Government Performance & Innovation | #govlive: Usually held in summer.
- Symantec Government Symposium | #symgovsym: Usually held in spring.
Other government events?
You’re out in the world discovering fantastic events for government workers all the time. What other events and conferences should be included on this list? Add your suggestions in a comment at the end of this post—we might just add them when we make our new list of government conferences to attend in 2018.
Editor’s Note: This blog post was originally published in September 2016. It has been updated with the latest information on the best government conferences.
Lauren Girardin is a marketing and communications consultant, freelance writer, and speaker based in San Francisco. She helps organizations and do-gooders engage their communities and tell their stories. Her website is laurengirardin.com and you can connect with her on Twitter at @girardinl.