Charles A. Ray

Dale: You are, of course, absolutely correct, it exists wherever there’s bureaucracy – government or otherwise, and I didn’t mean to imply that it only exists in government. I spent time at a major university (2005-2006) and found it just as bad there, and during my time in Washington, DC, I worked with a county government, a foundation, and an NGO, and found this in all of them. I guess I should have asked why do people when they gather in groups over complicate things. It would be nice, as you indicate, to see some empirical studies on whether or not different organizations exhibit different tendencies.