David B. Grinberg

Great points, Mark. First, there are some checks on the U.S. surveillance at issue, including the FISA Court and other courts which must approve search warrants, as well as reportedly re-approve and re-authorize the phone records surveillance about every three months.

Second, I agree that we should not merely accept the status quo as being infinite. I’m sure that the military, national security and intelligence communities have criteria regarding policy and programmatic changes — just as they have so-called “war games” to plan for an uncertain future under multiple global military scenarios.

Third, just an FYI, but “quotas” in U.S. employment are unlawful under Title VII of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. Goals and timetables are the standard criteria used, but it’s not just based on race, ethnicity, etc. Other factors like geographic and socio-economic variables are being taken into account more frequently.

Moreover, the US Supreme Court has been incrementally restricting the use of affirmative action in college admissions, with a major case to be decided soon. We are also seeing plaintiffs winning more “reverse discrimination” cases (where the aggrieved person sues on race/white, gender/male, etc.). But the diversity debate is voluminous and thus for another post.

Thanks again, Mark, for your exceptional contributions to this discussion — which are very much appreciated. Perhaps you want to tackle Henry’s reply below regarding:

“…the Patriot act as the ‘authorization’ for spying and or the collection of Meta-data” per “Title 50 › Chapter 36 › Subchapter IV › § 1861.”