Big Data Paradoxes

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    Henry Brown
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    Although primarily of interest to data scientists this, relatively short ~2500 words, paper from Social Science Research Network could have some interest to others, especially those who have at least some interest in the buzz word du jour “Big Data

    Title: Three Paradoxes of Big Data

    Authors: Neil M. Richards Washington University in Saint Louis – School of Law; Jonathan H. King Washington University in Saint Louis

    Abstract:
    Big data is all the rage. Its proponents tout the use of sophisticated analytics to mine large data sets for insight as the solution to many of our society’s problems. These big data evangelists insist that data-driven decision making can now give us better predictions in areas ranging from college admissions to dating to hiring to medicine to national security and crime prevention. But much of the rhetoric of big data contains no meaningful analysis of its potential perils, only the promise. We don’t deny that big data holds substantial potential for the future, and that large dataset analysis has important uses today. But we would like to sound a cautionary note and pause to consider big data’s potential more critically. In particular, we want to highlight three paradoxes in the current rhetoric about big data to help move us toward a more complete understanding of the big data picture. First, while big data pervasively collects all manner of private information, the operations of big data itself are almost entirely shrouded in legal and commercial secrecy. We call this the Transparency Paradox. Second, though big data evangelists talk in terms of miraculous outcomes, this rhetoric ignores the fact that big data seeks to identify at the expense of individual and collective identity. We call this the Identity Paradox. And third, the rhetoric of big data is characterized by its power to transform society, but big data has power effects of its own, which privilege large government and corporate entities at the expense of ordinary individuals. We call this the Power Paradox. Recognizing the paradoxes of big data, which show its perils alongside its potential, will help us to better understand this revolution. It may also allow us to craft solutions to produce a revolution that will be as good as its evangelists predict.

    INTRODUCTION
    Big data is all the rage. Its proponents tout the use of sophisticated analytics to mine large data sets for insight as the solution to many of our society’s problems. These big data evangelists insist that data-driven decision making can now give us better predictions in areas ranging from college admissions to dating to hiring. And it might one day help us better conserve precious resources, track and cure lethal diseases, and make our lives vastly safer and more efficient. Big data is not just for corporations. Smartphones and wearable sensors enable believers in the “Quantified Self” to measure their lives in order to improve sleep, lose weight, and get fitter. And recent revelations about the National Security Agency’s efforts to collect a database of all caller records suggest that big data may hold the answer to keeping us safe from terrorism as well.

    Consider The Human Face of Big Data, a glossy coffee table book that appeared last holiday season, which is also available as an iPad app. Such products are thinly disguised advertisements for big data’s potential to revolutionize society. The book argues that “Big Data is an extraordinary knowledge revolution that’s sweeping, almost invisibly, through business, academia, government, healthcare, and everyday life.”3 The app opens with a statement that frames both the promise and the peril of big data: “Every animate and inanimate object on earth will soon be generating data, including our homes, our cars, and yes, even our bodies.”

    Download the Paper

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